Ambulance vehicles as a source of multidrug-resistant infections: a multicenter study in Assiut City, Egypt

Une étude de Mohamed A El-Mokhtar et Helal F Hetta, publiée par DovePress [24 April 2018 Volume 2018:11]
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Background: Ambulances may represent a potential source of infection to patients, patients’ relatives, and paramedical staffs. In this study, we analyzed the extent of bacterial contamination in ambulance vehicles and measured the degree of antimicrobial resistance among isolated pathogens. Materials and methods: Twenty-five vehicles were included and 16 sampling points were swabbed in each vehicle. Then the swabs were immediately transferred to the laboratory to identify bacterial contaminants utilizing standard microbiological procedures and API® systems. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and screening for methicillin-resistant staphylococci and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Gram-negative rods were carried out. Results: A total of 400 samples were collected, 589 bacteria were isolated and 286 (48.6%) of the isolates were potentially pathogenic. The highest contamination rate with pathogenic bacteria was detected in suction devices (75.8%) and stethoscopes (67.7%). Staphylococci were the most frequently detected microorganisms (n=184) followed by Klebsiella spp. (49), Escherichia coli (40), Citrobacter spp. (7), and Proteus spp. (6). Staphylococci were mostly sensitive to vancomycin, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to imipenem. Overall, 46.1% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant, whereas 20.4% of the coagulase-negative staphylococci were methicillin resistant. Moreover, 36.7% of Klebsiella spp. and 27.5% of E. coli were ESBL producers. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that ambulances represent a source of prehospital multidrug-resistant infections.

Published online 2018 Apr 24. doi:  [10.2147/IDR.S151783]